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Citing Guide: In-Text Citations

In-Text Citations

The author's last name and the work's date of publication must always appear & are all that is necessary when citing an idea, an entire book, article or other work.

Example: (Smith, 2009)

The page number appears only if it is a direct quotation.

Example: (Smith, 2009, p. 195)


Paraphrasing a Source:

You may summarize or paraphrase the original words, thought, or idea but credit must be given to the source.

  • Example:  Stem cell research will bring about new ways of treating Alzheimer's disease (Tannen, 2011).

If you include the author's name(s) in the sentence, only the year is needed in the parenthetical reference.

  • Example:  Tannen has argued the point that stem cell research will bring about new ways of treating Alzheimer's disease (2011).

Two Authors:

In citing information from a work by two authors include both author's last names in either the signal phrase or parenthetical reference.

  • Example: Researchers found significant differences in the cancer rates of people who used sunscreen when compared to those who did not (Roberts & Lombardi, 2010).

More Than Three Authors:

If there are more than 3 authors, provide the first author's last name followed by et al. and the year of publication.

  • Example: Some experts disagree with Johnson's argument and state that the spike in property crime is largely a result of high unemployment (Smith et al., 2008).

Short Quotation:

When you incorporate a direct quotation into a sentence, you must cite the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number. Fit quotations within your sentences:

  • Example 1: “Quotations are effective in research papers when used selectively” (Gibaldi, 2010, p. 119).
  • Example 2: Gilbaldi (2010) states that "[q]uotations are effective in research papers when used selectively" (p. 119).

Long Quotation:

If the quote you are using is longer than 40 words set it off from your text with a free standing block. No quotation marks needed.

  • Example:
Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration:

They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Bronte, 2009, p. 83)